Standard Specifications of Stainless Steel 409M Plates

What do you mean by a Plate? 

Plates are categorized as metals and alloys that come in the form of metal plate or flat plates stock. The plates are having a minimum thickness of 0.25 inch, although they can be thicker than ¼ inch. Metal plates are commonly made from stainless steel, titanium and vitallium among other materials.

What is Grade 409M?

Stainless Steel grade 409M is a new version of Stainless Steel 409 with lower carbon content of 0.03%. It is used to replace carbon steels and low alloy steels in applications requiring higher strength, weldability, abrasion resistance and slide-ability. It has good scaling and oxidation resistance at high temperatures, including sulfur-containing atmospheres. 

SS Grade 409M is used in bulk solids handling areas/bunkers, petrochemical, shipping-waggons, mining & quarrying, sugar, irrigation, forestry, sewage treatment plants, and general engineering industries.

409M Plates

The Grade 409M Plates has high tensile strength, and it has excellent resistance to atmospheric corrosion and exhaust gas. SS 409M superior to 410 martensitic grades containing 12% chromium. Furthermore, it has temperature tolerance up to 675 ° Celsius. These plates can also be used at high and elevated temperatures, providing improved results while remaining undamaged.

SS 409M Plate is a ferritic steel that is generally referred to as a chromium stainless steel because of its excellent corrosion resistance. Some chemical elements, such as carbon, silicon, and manganese, contribute to the steel’s critical properties. Strong mechanical efficiency, excellent resilience, hardness, and weldability in a high-temperature setting are among the properties given.

Chemical Composition

Type 409M stainless steel has a special chemical composition that contains 

  • Carbon-10.5 to 11.75 % 
  • Iron-0.08 min
  • Nickel- 0.5 min
  • Manganese-1 max
  • Silicon-1 max
  • Phosphorus- 0.045 max
  • Sulfur-0.3 min 
  • Titanium- 0.075 max

Standard Specifications of 409M Plates


Width: 1000/1219/1250/1500/2000 millimetre

Length: 2000/2440/2500/3000/6000 millimetre

Thickness: 4.0-100mm

Hardness: Half Hard, Soft, Hard, Quarter Hard, Spring Hard etc.

Finish: Hot rolled plate (HR), Cold rolled sheet (CR), 2B, 2D, BA NO (8), SATIN 

Form: Coils, Foils, Plain Sheet, Rolls, Strip, Flats, Blank, Ring.

Properties of 409M Plates

  • At high temperatures, Stainless Steel Grade 409M has excellent mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance. 
  • It is widely agreed to be stainless steel chromium, with applications requiring weldability in vehicle exhaust systems and applications. 
  • 409M Plates made are particularly used in the pipe and automotive industries, and they are ideal for environments of low corrosion resistance. 
  • Grade 409M stainless steels are used in vehicle exhaust pipes, catalytic converter systems, mufflers, and other similar applications.

Properties and application of SS 304 sheet

Stainless steel (SS) is a very versatile material. There are more than 150 stainless steel grades, of which 15 are used most commonly. Despite the availability of a wide range of alternatives, Grade 304 stainless steel is the most versatile, with excellent forming and welding qualities. This blog offers insight into the properties of 304 steel, the most common stainless steel.

COMPOSITION – The chemical composition for SS 304 Sheet is as follows;

Chromium (18%-20%) – Increases tensile strength, hardness, wear and abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, and scaling at high temperatures.

Nickel (8%-10%) – Improves strength and hardness without compromising toughness and ductility. 

The addition of the following alloy elements results in small but significant differences.

Manganese (up to 2%) – It aids in mild deoxidation of steel, prevents the formation of iron sulfide and inclusions, and increases it’s hardenability.

Silicon (up to 1%) – It allows for improved cleaning and deoxidation when welding on contaminated surfaces.


Mechanical properties of SS 304 Sheet are as follows;

Tensile Strength (MPa)540 – 750
Proof Stress (MPa)230 Min
Elongation A50 mm45 Min %


Physical properties of SS 304 Sheet are as follows;

Density8.00 g/cm3
Melting Point1400 °C


• Austenitic – 304 is the most common austenitic stainless steel. It renders steels unhardenable by heat treatment and renders them basically nonmagnetic.

• Corrosion Resistant – Grade 304 stainless steel sheets perform impressively in a wide variety of ambient environments and corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion may develop in chloride-containing environments.

• Heat Resistant – Stainless steel 304 sheets provide better oxidation resistance during intermittent use up to 870°C and constant use up to 925°C.

• Forging – Stainless Steel 304 sheets are one of the easier austenitic stainless steels to forge, at temperatures above 925°C.

• Welding – Stainless steel sheet 304 has excellent welding properties and does not require preheating, but it does necessitate a similar filler material composition but high alloy content.

• Cleanability – SS 304 sheets are frequently used in food equipment, where bacteria removal is critically important, Stainless Steel 304 sheets are easier to clean than most other metals.

• Cold working – Cold working processes such as cold heading, cold drawing, cold extrusion, and cold riveting are possible with SS 304 sheets, but are more difficult than cold working with carbon steel sheets.

• Formability – The ability of sheet metal to be shaped into the desired form without necking or cracking is referred to as formability. SS 304 sheet can be easily drawn and formed. 

• Aesthetic appeal – SS 304 sheets have a high luster which is ideal for exposed surfaces.


• Home Applications – SS 304 sheets are used to make a variety of household items viz. sinks, stoves, etc. due to it’s anti-corrosive properties. Numerous cooking appliances and utensils are also made with this material.

• Industrial Applications – SS 304 sheets are used in a variety of industries such as the Food Industry, Chemical Industry, Automotive Industry, Aerospace industry, etc.

• Architecture – This material due to it’s various beneficial properties is used for Architectural paneling, railings & trim. 

• Medical Applications – It is used in the medical device industry where high corrosion resistance, good formability, strength, reliability, and hygiene are critical.

• It is also a common coil material for vaporizers, Indoor electrical enclosures, Storage tanks, etc.

What is the chemical composition of ss 304 plates?

Stainless steel 304 is the most versatile and widely applicable form of stainless steel. The material is also popular with its old name 18/8 obtained from its composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Here, stainless steel grade 304 is an austenitic grade which undergoes a process of deep drawing. The ability of copper went through deep drawing allows 304 plates to use in saucepans and sinks. 

What is SS 304? 

Stainless steel 304 is the carbon alloy which offers various properties to final products. Well defined composition of SS 304 grade provides them with the ability to work in different operational conditions. Besides, SS 304 plates are weldable and suitable to work at a higher temperature range. Again, Stainless steel 304 plates are available at reasonable price and standards. SS 304 plates are available in various grades including 1.4301/304 which resembles S30400, 304S15, 304S16, 304S31 and EN58E.

What is the composition of SS 304?

Stainless steel 304 is a prominent raw material which contains various elements in a defined amount. The carbon elements are present in 0.07%, Chromium in 17 to 19%, Manganese in 2 % and silicon in 1%. Along with this, the stainless steel contains 0.045% phosphorous, 0.015% sulphur, nickel 8 to 10%, nitrogen in 0.10% and iron in a balanced state. 

All these components present in stainless steel 304 offers outstanding corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and fabrication capacity. Besides, these metal components allow stainless steel 304 plates to undergo cold working and hot working. Stainless steel 304 plates are machinable and enhance edges of the product. The method of machining makes edges sharp and prevents hardening. Besides, well-defined components offer comprehensive strength, resistance to stress and tensile strength, and elongation ability. 

Effect of components on the usability of SS 304 plates

Well-defined composition of SS 304 makes them suitable for various applications. Plates are useful in food processing unit, kitchen utensils, and architectural construction.

Properties and Applications Of stainless steel 316L Coils

Stainless Steel 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade secondary to SS 304 among the austenitic stainless steels. Molybdenum offers 316 considerably higher corrosion-resistant qualities than Grade 304, significantly higher pitting and chloride cracking corrosion resistance.

Stainless Steel 316L Coils are immune to sensitization (grain boundary carbide precipitation), and the low carbon 316 variant. It’s additionally usually utilized in several industrial applications because of its superior properties. There is generally no major price difference between 316 and 316L stainless steel.

Properties of 316L chrome steel Coils

Due to welding, the lower carbon content in 316L decreases harmful carbide precipitation (carbon is stripped from the metal and reacts because of heat with chromium, decreasing corrosion resistance). 316L Coils are used when welding is required to make sure maximum corrosion resistance.

316L SS Coils are a much better and robust choice for a project that needs lot of welding as a result of 316 is more prone to weld decay than 316L (corrosion within the weld). However, 316 will be annealed to resist weld decay. 316L is also an excellent stainless steel for high-temperature, high-corrosion uses, that is Stainless Steel 316L Coils are therefore popular to be used in construction and marine projects.

Hot and Cold Working

With most typical hot working techniques, 316L stainless steel will be treated cold. Optimum hot working temperatures should be between 1150-1260 degrees C and should certainly not be less than 930 degrees C. Post-work annealing should be done to cause maximum resistance to corrosion.

Applications of Stainless Steel 316L Coils

Due to its excellent resistance to corrosion and oxidation, excellent mechanical properties, weldability and fabric ability, SS 316L Coils can be used for variety of applications like

Food processing equipment, particularly in chloride environments.


Sea Water Applications

Architecture and engineering 

Medical implants, including pins, screws and orthopedic implants, such as full hip and knee replacements.

Stainless Steel 316L Coils for oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical processing industries, food processing equipment, especially in chloride environments

Uses And Advantages Of Stainless Steel 321 Coils

Stainless Steel 321 is titanium-plated austenitic stainless steel with greater overall corrosion resistance. It has a remarkable inter granular tolerance to corrosion at temperatures of 800–1500 degrees F (427–816 degrees C) in chromium carbide precipitation.

Stainless Steel 321 Coils maintain oxidation at 1500 degrees F (816 degrees C) and have better creep and stress rupture efficiency than SS 304 and 304L. It also maintains strong low-temperature longevity.

Stainless Steel 321H is the higher carbon variant (0.04–0.10) of the SS 321. It was developed to increase creep resistance and higher resistance at temperatures above 1000 degrees F (537 degrees C). In most cases, the carbon content of the plate allows dual certification.

SS 321 cannot be hardened by heat treatment, but rather by cold service. Standard engineering processes can be easily welded and stored.

Stainless Steel 321 Coils Characteristics

• Oxidation tolerance up to 1600 degrees F

• Intergranular corrosion stabilized against welded heat-affected zone (HAZ)

• Tolerance to polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking

Applications for SS 321/321H Coils

• Aircraft engine piston manifolds and exhaust stacks

• Mutual extension

• Thermal oxidizers

• Refining machinery

• High-temperature chemical process facilities

• Food processing and distribution facilities

Resistance to corrosion

Stainless Steel 321 Coils have a good overall corrosion resistance that is close to 304. It was produced for use of chromium carbide precipitation by 1800–1500 degrees F (427–816 degrees C) where unstabilized alloys, such as 304, are subject to intergranular assault. The alloy can be found with most diluted organic acids at moderate temperatures and in pure phosphoric acid at lower temperatures and up to 10% diluted solutions at high temperatures. Stainless Steel 321 Coils are resistant to polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking in the hydrocarbon operation. It can also be found in caustic solutions free of chloride or fluoride at low temperatures. SS 321 does not perform well in chloride solutions, either in limited amounts or in the sulphuric acid operation.

Machining up

304 Stainless Steel is not tougher than 321 stainless steel, which creates the same tough stringy chips. Work-hardening; sluggish speeds and thick feed minimizes the inclination of this alloy.

Welding & Welding Processes

321 Stainless steel is quickly welded to all traditional methods, including submerged arc. Suitable weld fillers are most commonly referred to as AWS E/ER 347 or E/ER 321. This alloy is commonly considered to have comparable weldability to 304 and 304L stainless steel, with the prime difference being the addition of titanium which eliminates or prevents precipitation of carbide during welding.

Annealing at 1800-2000 degrees F (928-1093 degrees C) cold temperature. This method would result in the highest ductility possible. See note on fixed anneal under corrosion for optimum corrosion resistance. Stainless Steel 321 Coils cannot be hardened by heat treatment. High properties can only be accomplished by cooling down.

Hot-working and cold working methods

Working temperatures between 2100-2300 degrees F (1149-1260 degrees C) are recommended for forging, disturbing, and other hot job processes. Do not work 321 Stainless Steel Coils at temperatures below 1700 degrees F. The substance must be water-quenched or fully annealed to maintain the highest resistance to corrosion.

While this material demands higher initial forces than 304 stainless steel, it is marginally rugged and ductile and can be quickly stamped, blanked, spun, and drawn.