Chemical Composition And Application Of SS 316L Sheet

Stainless steel grade 316L is a low carbon version of grade 316L stainless steel. It has the same corrosion resistance and strength as 316 Stainless Steel, but can produce stronger welds because of its low carbon content. The following datasheet provides an overview of stainless steel grade 316L. Element Content Precent Iron, Fe Balance Chromium, Cr 18-20 Nickel, Ni 11-15.

Manufacturing Process

  • Machining stainless steel grade 316L requires low speeds and constant feeds to reduce its tendency to work hard. This steel is stronger than grade 304 stainless steel with a long stringy chip; however, the use of chip breakers is recommended. Welding can be done using most conventional fusion and resistance methods. Oxyacetylene welding should be avoided. AWS E/ER 316L filler metal is recommended.
  • Conventional hot working processes can be performed. The material should be heated to 1149-1260°C (2100-2300°F); however, it should not be heated below 927°C (1700°F). To optimize corrosion resistance, post-work annealing is recommended.
  • Shearing, stamping, deep drawing, and stamping are possible with 316L grade stainless steel, and post-treatment annealing is recommended to remove internal stresses. Annealing is performed at 1010-1121 ° C (18502050 ° F), which should be followed by rapid cooling.
  • Grade 316L SS does not respond to heat treatment.

Features of SS 316 Sheet

  • Stainless Steel 316L sheet is the low-carbon derivative of SS 316. 
  • The metal maintains its high strength and strong corrosion-resistance; however, the carbon content does have several effects. 
  • Stainless Steel 316L sheet has greater strength under welding; its products are stronger. 
  • Stainless steel 316L sheet does not respond or harden from heat treatments.

Characteristics of Stainless Steel 316L Sheet

  • Application Corrosion resistant.
  • High tensile strength.
  • Very durable.
  • Temperature resistant.
  • Easy formability and fabrication.
  • Low-maintenance (long-lasting).
  • Attractive appearance
  • Environmentally friendly (recyclable).
  • options-

Grade 316L stainless steel is widely used in the following applications:

  • Condensers in fossils.
  • Pulp and paper manufacturing.
  • Nuclear-fueled power generation stations.
  • Chemical and petrochemical process equipment.

Chemical properties of stainless steel 321 plate

Stainless Steel contains at least 10.5 percent chromium, less than 1.2 percent carbon, and other alloying elements.

Grades 321 is the basic austenitic 18/8 steel Grade of 304 stabilized by Titanium 321 additions. Stainless steel 321 plates is stabilized against chromium carbide formation by the addition of titanium. SS 321 is used for not being sensitive to intergranular corrosion after heating within the carbide precipitation range of 425° Celsius to 850 ° Celsius. 

SS 321, like other austenitic grades, has excellent shaping and welding properties and can be easily braked or roll-formed. There is no need for post-weld annealing. 321 is also incredibly tough, even at cryogenic temperatures. This grade 321 is not suitable for decorative applications as it, does not get polished

Stainless Steel 321 are mostly applicable in:

  • Aircraft exhaust manifolds
  • Bellows
  • Furnace parts
  • Heating element tubing
  • Heat Exchangers

Chemical Properties of 321 Plates          

Element% of chemical
Chromium (C)17.00 min. to 19.00 max
Nickel (Ni)9.00 min. to 12.00 max.
Carbon (C)0.08
Manganese (Mn)2.00
Silicon (Si)0.75
Titanium (Ti)5 x (C + N) min. to 0.70 max
Nitrogen (N)0.10
Iron (Fe)Balance

All about Stainless Steel 321 plates

Alloy 321 stainless steel plate has a good general corrosion resistance as compared to 304. It is enhanced for use in the chromium carbide precipitation range of 1800 to 1500° Fahrenheit that is 427 to 816°C where un-stabilized alloys such as 304 are subject to intergranular attack.

At high temperatures, the alloy can be present in most diluted organic acids, as well as pure organic acids, phosphoric acid at lower temperatures, and up to 10% diluted solutions at higher temperatures. Stainless Steel 321 avoids polythionic acid stress corrosion cracking in hydrocarbon operations.

Because of its good mechanical properties, Stainless Steel 321 Plate is also ideal for high-temperature operation. Alloy 321 stainless steel plate has better creep and stress rupture properties than 304 and particularly 304L, and it should be used for exposures where sensitization and intergranular corrosion is a problem. Grade 321 Plates is the of choice for applications in the temperature range of up to about 900 °C, resistance to scaling, combining high strength, and phase stability with resistance to subsequent aqueous corrosion. At low temperatures, it can also be found in chloride or fluoride-free caustic solutions. Except at low concentrations, alloy 321 stainless steel plate does not work well in chloride solutions or in sulfuric acid operation.

Standard Specifications of Stainless Steel 409M Plates

What do you mean by a Plate? 

Plates are categorized as metals and alloys that come in the form of metal plate or flat plates stock. The plates are having a minimum thickness of 0.25 inch, although they can be thicker than ¼ inch. Metal plates are commonly made from stainless steel, titanium and vitallium among other materials.

What is Grade 409M?

Stainless Steel grade 409M is a new version of Stainless Steel 409 with lower carbon content of 0.03%. It is used to replace carbon steels and low alloy steels in applications requiring higher strength, weldability, abrasion resistance and slide-ability. It has good scaling and oxidation resistance at high temperatures, including sulfur-containing atmospheres. 

SS Grade 409M is used in bulk solids handling areas/bunkers, petrochemical, shipping-waggons, mining & quarrying, sugar, irrigation, forestry, sewage treatment plants, and general engineering industries.

409M Plates

The Grade 409M Plates has high tensile strength, and it has excellent resistance to atmospheric corrosion and exhaust gas. SS 409M superior to 410 martensitic grades containing 12% chromium. Furthermore, it has temperature tolerance up to 675 ° Celsius. These plates can also be used at high and elevated temperatures, providing improved results while remaining undamaged.

SS 409M Plate is a ferritic steel that is generally referred to as a chromium stainless steel because of its excellent corrosion resistance. Some chemical elements, such as carbon, silicon, and manganese, contribute to the steel’s critical properties. Strong mechanical efficiency, excellent resilience, hardness, and weldability in a high-temperature setting are among the properties given.

Chemical Composition

Type 409M stainless steel has a special chemical composition that contains 

  • Carbon-10.5 to 11.75 % 
  • Iron-0.08 min
  • Nickel- 0.5 min
  • Manganese-1 max
  • Silicon-1 max
  • Phosphorus- 0.045 max
  • Sulfur-0.3 min 
  • Titanium- 0.075 max

Standard Specifications of 409M Plates


Width: 1000/1219/1250/1500/2000 millimetre

Length: 2000/2440/2500/3000/6000 millimetre

Thickness: 4.0-100mm

Hardness: Half Hard, Soft, Hard, Quarter Hard, Spring Hard etc.

Finish: Hot rolled plate (HR), Cold rolled sheet (CR), 2B, 2D, BA NO (8), SATIN 

Form: Coils, Foils, Plain Sheet, Rolls, Strip, Flats, Blank, Ring.

Properties of 409M Plates

  • At high temperatures, Stainless Steel Grade 409M has excellent mechanical properties as well as corrosion resistance. 
  • It is widely agreed to be stainless steel chromium, with applications requiring weldability in vehicle exhaust systems and applications. 
  • 409M Plates made are particularly used in the pipe and automotive industries, and they are ideal for environments of low corrosion resistance. 
  • Grade 409M stainless steels are used in vehicle exhaust pipes, catalytic converter systems, mufflers, and other similar applications.

Properties and application of SS 304 sheet

Stainless steel (SS) is a very versatile material. There are more than 150 stainless steel grades, of which 15 are used most commonly. Despite the availability of a wide range of alternatives, Grade 304 stainless steel is the most versatile, with excellent forming and welding qualities. This blog offers insight into the properties of 304 steel, the most common stainless steel.

COMPOSITION – The chemical composition for SS 304 Sheet is as follows;

Chromium (18%-20%) – Increases tensile strength, hardness, wear and abrasion resistance, corrosion resistance, and scaling at high temperatures.

Nickel (8%-10%) – Improves strength and hardness without compromising toughness and ductility. 

The addition of the following alloy elements results in small but significant differences.

Manganese (up to 2%) – It aids in mild deoxidation of steel, prevents the formation of iron sulfide and inclusions, and increases it’s hardenability.

Silicon (up to 1%) – It allows for improved cleaning and deoxidation when welding on contaminated surfaces.


Mechanical properties of SS 304 Sheet are as follows;

Tensile Strength (MPa)540 – 750
Proof Stress (MPa)230 Min
Elongation A50 mm45 Min %


Physical properties of SS 304 Sheet are as follows;

Density8.00 g/cm3
Melting Point1400 °C


• Austenitic – 304 is the most common austenitic stainless steel. It renders steels unhardenable by heat treatment and renders them basically nonmagnetic.

• Corrosion Resistant – Grade 304 stainless steel sheets perform impressively in a wide variety of ambient environments and corrosive media. Pitting and crevice corrosion may develop in chloride-containing environments.

• Heat Resistant – Stainless steel 304 sheets provide better oxidation resistance during intermittent use up to 870°C and constant use up to 925°C.

• Forging – Stainless Steel 304 sheets are one of the easier austenitic stainless steels to forge, at temperatures above 925°C.

• Welding – Stainless steel sheet 304 has excellent welding properties and does not require preheating, but it does necessitate a similar filler material composition but high alloy content.

• Cleanability – SS 304 sheets are frequently used in food equipment, where bacteria removal is critically important, Stainless Steel 304 sheets are easier to clean than most other metals.

• Cold working – Cold working processes such as cold heading, cold drawing, cold extrusion, and cold riveting are possible with SS 304 sheets, but are more difficult than cold working with carbon steel sheets.

• Formability – The ability of sheet metal to be shaped into the desired form without necking or cracking is referred to as formability. SS 304 sheet can be easily drawn and formed. 

• Aesthetic appeal – SS 304 sheets have a high luster which is ideal for exposed surfaces.


• Home Applications – SS 304 sheets are used to make a variety of household items viz. sinks, stoves, etc. due to it’s anti-corrosive properties. Numerous cooking appliances and utensils are also made with this material.

• Industrial Applications – SS 304 sheets are used in a variety of industries such as the Food Industry, Chemical Industry, Automotive Industry, Aerospace industry, etc.

• Architecture – This material due to it’s various beneficial properties is used for Architectural paneling, railings & trim. 

• Medical Applications – It is used in the medical device industry where high corrosion resistance, good formability, strength, reliability, and hygiene are critical.

• It is also a common coil material for vaporizers, Indoor electrical enclosures, Storage tanks, etc.

What is the chemical composition of ss 304 plates?

Stainless steel 304 is the most versatile and widely applicable form of stainless steel. The material is also popular with its old name 18/8 obtained from its composition of 18% chromium and 8% nickel. Here, stainless steel grade 304 is an austenitic grade which undergoes a process of deep drawing. The ability of copper went through deep drawing allows 304 plates to use in saucepans and sinks. 

What is SS 304? 

Stainless steel 304 is the carbon alloy which offers various properties to final products. Well defined composition of SS 304 grade provides them with the ability to work in different operational conditions. Besides, SS 304 plates are weldable and suitable to work at a higher temperature range. Again, Stainless steel 304 plates are available at reasonable price and standards. SS 304 plates are available in various grades including 1.4301/304 which resembles S30400, 304S15, 304S16, 304S31 and EN58E.

What is the composition of SS 304?

Stainless steel 304 is a prominent raw material which contains various elements in a defined amount. The carbon elements are present in 0.07%, Chromium in 17 to 19%, Manganese in 2 % and silicon in 1%. Along with this, the stainless steel contains 0.045% phosphorous, 0.015% sulphur, nickel 8 to 10%, nitrogen in 0.10% and iron in a balanced state. 

All these components present in stainless steel 304 offers outstanding corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and fabrication capacity. Besides, these metal components allow stainless steel 304 plates to undergo cold working and hot working. Stainless steel 304 plates are machinable and enhance edges of the product. The method of machining makes edges sharp and prevents hardening. Besides, well-defined components offer comprehensive strength, resistance to stress and tensile strength, and elongation ability. 

Effect of components on the usability of SS 304 plates

Well-defined composition of SS 304 makes them suitable for various applications. Plates are useful in food processing unit, kitchen utensils, and architectural construction.